New National Curriculum 2014: Year 4
Spoken Language (Years 1 to 6)
listen and respond appropriately to adults and their peers
ask relevant questions to extend their understanding and knowledge
use relevant strategies to build their vocabulary
articulate and justify answers, arguments and opinions
give well-structured descriptions, explanations and narratives for different purposes, including for expressing feelings
maintain attention and participate actively in collaborative conversations, staying on topic and initiating and responding to comments
use spoken language to develop understanding through speculating, hypothesising, imagining and exploring ideas
speak audibly and fluently with an increasing command of Standard English
participate in discussions, presentations, performances, role play, improvisations and debates
gain, maintain and monitor the interest of the listener(s)
consider and evaluate different viewpoints, attending to and building on the contributions of others
select and use appropriate registers for effective communication.
Reading: Word Reading
apply their growing knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes (etymology and morphology) as listed in English Appendix 1, both to read aloud and to understand the meaning of new words they meet
read further exception words, noting the unusual correspondences between spelling and sound, and where these occur in the word.
Develop positive attitudes to reading and understanding of what they read by:
listening to and discussing a wide range of fiction, poetry, plays, non-fiction and reference books or textbooks
reading books that are structured in different ways and reading for a range of purposes
using dictionaries to check the meaning of words that they have read
increasing their familiarity with a wide range of books, including fairy stories, myths and legends, and retelling some of these orally
identifying themes and conventions in a wide range of books
preparing poems and play scripts to read aloud and to perform, showing understanding through intonation, tone, volume and action
discussing words and phrases that capture the reader’s interest and imagination
recognising some different forms of poetry [for example, free verse, narrative poetry]
Understand what they read, in books they can read independently, by:
checking that the text makes sense to them, discussing their understanding and explaining the meaning of words in context
asking questions to improve their understanding of a text
drawing inferences such as inferring characters’ feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions, and justifying inferences with evidence
predicting what might happen from details stated and implied
identifying main ideas drawn from more than one paragraph and summarising these
identifying how language, structure, and presentation contribute to meaning
retrieve and record information from non-fiction
participate in discussion about both books that are read to them and those they can read for themselves, taking turns and listening to what others say.
use further prefixes and suffixes and understand how to add them (English Appendix 1)
spell further homophones
spell words that are often miss-pelt (English Appendix 1)
place the possessive apostrophe accurately in words with regular plurals [for example, girls’, boys’] and in words with irregular plurals [for example, children’s]
use the first two or three letters of a word to check its spelling in a dictionary
write from memory simple sentences, dictated by the teacher, that include words and punctuation taught so far.
use the diagonal and horizontal strokes that are needed to join letters and understand which letters, when adjacent to one another, are best left unjoined
increase the legibility, consistency and quality of their handwriting [for example, by ensuring that the down-strokes of letters are parallel and equidistant; that lines of writing are spaced sufficiently so that the ascenders and descenders of letters do not touch].
Plan their writing by:
discussing writing similar to that which they are planning to write in order to understand and learn from its structure, vocabulary and grammar
discussing and recording ideas
Draft & write by:
composing and rehearsing sentences orally (including dialogue), progressively building a varied and rich vocabulary and an increasing range of sentence structures (English Appendix 2)
organising paragraphs around a theme
in narratives, creating settings, characters and plot
in non-narrative material, using simple organisational devices [for example, headings and sub-headings]
Evaluate & edit by:
assessing the effectiveness of their own and others’ writing and suggesting improvements
proposing changes to grammar and vocabulary to improve consistency, including the accurate use of pronouns in sentences
proof-read for spelling and punctuation errors
read aloud their own writing, to a group or the whole class, using appropriate intonation and controlling the tone and volume so that the meaning is clear.
Writing: Vocabulary, Grammar & Punctuation
Develop their understanding of the concepts set out in English Appendix 2 by:
extending the range of sentences with more than one clause by using a wider range of conjunctions, including when, if, because, although
using the present perfect form of verbs in contrast to the past tense
choosing nouns or pronouns appropriately for clarity and cohesion and to avoid repetition
using conjunctions, adverbs and prepositions to express time and cause
using fronted adverbials
learning the grammar for years 3 and 4 in English Appendix 2
Indicate grammatical and other features by:
using commas after fronted adverbials
indicating possession by using the possessive apostrophe with plural nouns
using and punctuating direct speech
use and understand the grammatical terminology in English Appendix 2 accurately and appropriately when discussing their writing and reading.
Number: Number & Place Value
count in multiples of 6, 7, 9, 25 and 1000
find 1000 more or less than a given number
count backwards through zero to include negative numbers
recognise the place value of each digit in a four-digit number (thousands, hundreds, tens, and ones)
order and compare numbers beyond 1000
identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations
round any number to the nearest 10, 100 or 1000
solve number and practical problems that involve all of the above and with increasingly large positive numbers
read Roman numerals to 100 (I to C) and know that over time, the numeral system changed to include the concept of zero and place value.
Number: Addition & Subtraction
add and subtract numbers with up to 4 digits using the formal written methods of columnar addition and subtraction where appropriate
estimate and use inverse operations to check answers to a calculation
solve addition and subtraction two-step problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why.
Number: Multiplication & Division
recall multiplication and division facts for multiplication tables up to 12 Χ 12
use place value, known and derived facts to multiply and divide mentally, including: multiplying by 0 and 1; dividing by 1; multiplying together three numbers
recognise and use factor pairs and commutativity in mental calculations
multiply two-digit and three-digit numbers by a one-digit number using formal written layout
solve problems involving multiplying and adding, including using the distributive law to multiply two digit numbers by one digit, integer scaling problems and harder correspondence problems such as n objects are connected to m objects.
recognise and show, using diagrams, families of common equivalent fractions
count up and down in hundredths; recognise that hundredths arise when dividing an object by one hundred and dividing tenths by ten.
solve problems involving increasingly harder fractions to calculate quantities, and fractions to divide quantities, including non-unit fractions where the answer is a whole number
add and subtract fractions with the same denominator
recognise and write decimal equivalents of any number of tenths or hundredths
recognise and write decimal equivalents to 1/4, 1/2, 3/4
find the effect of dividing a one- or two-digit number by 10 and 100, identifying the value of the digits in the answer as ones, tenths and hundredths
round decimals with one decimal place to the nearest whole number
compare numbers with the same number of decimal places up to two decimal places
solve simple measure and money problems involving fractions and decimals to two decimal places.
convert between different units of measure [for example, kilometre to metre; hour to minute]
measure and calculate the perimeter of a rectilinear figure (including squares) in centimetres and metres
find the area of rectilinear shapes by counting squares
estimate, compare and calculate different measures, including money in pounds and pence.
Geometry: Properties of Shapes
compare and classify geometric shapes, including quadrilaterals and triangles, based on their properties and sizes
identify acute and obtuse angles and compare and order angles up to two right angles by size
identify lines of symmetry in 2-D shapes presented in different orientations
complete a simple symmetric figure with respect to a specific line of symmetry.
Geometry : Position & Direction
describe positions on a 2-D grid as coordinates in the first quadrant
describe movements between positions as translations of a given unit to the left/right and up/down
plot specified points and draw sides to complete a given polygon.
interpret and present discrete and continuous data using appropriate graphical methods, including bar charts and time graphs.
solve comparison, sum and difference problems using information presented in bar charts, pictograms, tables and other graphs.
Working Scientifically (Lower Key Stage 2)
asking relevant questions and using different types of scientific enquiries to answer them
setting up simple practical enquiries, comparative and fair tests
making systematic and careful observations and, where appropriate, taking accurate measurements using standard units, using a range of equipment, including thermometers and data loggers
gathering, recording, classifying and presenting data in a variety of ways to help in answering questions
recording findings using simple scientific language, drawings, labelled diagrams, keys, bar charts, and tables
reporting on findings from enquiries, including oral and written explanations, displays or presentations of results and conclusions
using results to draw simple conclusions, make predictions for new values, suggest improvements and raise further questions
identifying differences, similarities or changes related to simple scientific ideas and processes
using straightforward scientific evidence to answer questions or to support their findings.
Living Things & Their Habitats
recognise that living things can be grouped in a variety of ways
explore and use classification keys to help group, identify and name a variety of living things in their local and wider environment
recognise that environments can change and that this can sometimes pose dangers to living things.
Animals (including humans)
describe the simple functions of the basic parts of the digestive system in humans
identify the different types of teeth in humans and their simple functions
construct and interpret a variety of food chains, identifying producers, predators and prey.
States of Matter
compare and group materials together, according to whether they are solids, liquids or gases
observe that some materials change state when they are heated or cooled, and measure or research the temperature at which this happens in degrees Celsius (°C)
identify the part played by evaporation and condensation in the water cycle and associate the rate of evaporation with temperature.
identify how sounds are made, associating some of them with something vibrating
recognise that vibrations from sounds travel through a medium to the ear
find patterns between the pitch of a sound and features of the object that produced it
find patterns between the volume of a sound and the strength of the vibrations that produced it
recognise that sounds get fainter as the distance from the sound source increases.
identify common appliances that run on electricity
construct a simple series electrical circuit, identifying and naming its basic parts, including cells, wires, bulbs, switches and buzzers
identify whether or not a lamp will light in a simple series circuit, based on whether or not the lamp is part of a complete loop with a battery
recognise that a switch opens and closes a circuit and associate this with whether or not a lamp lights in a simple series circuit
recognise some common conductors and insulators, and associate metals with being good conductors.
locate the world’s countries, using maps to focus on Europe (including the location of Russia) and North and South America, concentrating on their environmental regions, key physical and human characteristics, countries, and major cities
name and locate counties and cities of the United Kingdom, geographical regions and their identifying human and physical characteristics, key topographical features (including hills, mountains, coasts and rivers), and land-use patterns; and understand how some of these aspects have changed over time
identify the position and significance of latitude, longitude, Equator, Northern Hemisphere, Southern Hemisphere, the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, Arctic and Antarctic Circle, the Prime/Greenwich Meridian and time zones (including day and night)
understand geographical similarities and differences through the study of human and physical geography of a region of the United Kingdom, a region in a European country, and a region within North or South America
Human & Physical Geography
Describe and understand key aspects of:
physical geography, including: climate zones, biomes and vegetation belts, rivers, mountains, volcanoes and earthquakes, and the water cycle
human geography, including: types of settlement and land use, economic activity including trade links, and the distribution of natural resources including energy, food, minerals and water
Geographical Skills & Fieldwork
use maps, atlases, globes and digital/computer mapping to locate countries and describe features studied
use the eight points of a compass, four and six-figure grid references, symbols and key (including the use of Ordnance Survey maps) to build their knowledge of the United Kingdom and the wider world
use fieldwork to observe, measure, record and present the human and physical features in the local area using a range of methods, including sketch maps, plans and graphs, and digital technologies.
Pupils should continue to develop a chronologically secure knowledge and understanding of British, local and world history, establishing clear narratives within and across the periods they study. They should note connections, contrasts and trends over time and develop the appropriate use of historical terms. They should regularly address and sometimes devise historically valid questions about change, cause, similarity and difference, and significance. They should construct informed responses that involve thoughtful selection and organisation of relevant historical information. They should understand how our knowledge of the past is constructed from a range of sources.
changes in Britain from the Stone Age to the Iron Age
the Roman Empire and its impact on Britain
Britain’s settlement by Anglo-Saxons and Scots
the Viking and Anglo-Saxon struggle for the Kingdom of England to the time of Edward the Confessor
a local history study
a study of an aspect or theme in British history that extends pupils’ chronological knowledge beyond 1066
the achievements of the earliest civilizations – an overview of where and when the first civilizations appeared and a depth study of one of the following: Ancient Sumer; The Indus Valley; Ancient Egypt; The Shang Dynasty of Ancient China
Ancient Greece – a study of Greek life and achievements and their influence on the western world
a non-European society that provides contrasts with British history – one study chosen from: early Islamic civilization, including a study of Baghdad c. AD 900; Mayan civilization c. AD 900; Benin (West Africa) c. AD 900-1300.
design, write and debug programs that accomplish specific goals, including controlling or simulating physical systems; solve problems by decomposing them into smaller parts
use sequence, selection, and repetition in programs; work with variables and various forms of input and output
use logical reasoning to explain how some simple algorithms work and to detect and correct errors in algorithms and programs
understand computer networks including the internet; how they can provide multiple services, such as the world wide web; and the opportunities they offer for communication and collaboration
use search technologies effectively, appreciate how results are selected and ranked, and be discerning in evaluating digital content
select, use and combine a variety of software (including internet services) on a range of digital devices to design and create a range of programs, systems and content that accomplish given goals, including collecting, analysing, evaluating and presenting data and information
use technology safely, respectfully and responsibly; recognise acceptable/unacceptable behaviour; identify a range of ways to report concerns about content and contact.
use running, jumping, throwing and catching in isolation and in combination
play competitive games, modified where appropriate [for example, badminton, basketball, cricket, football, hockey, netball, rounders and tennis], and apply basic principles suitable for attacking and defending
develop flexibility, strength, technique, control and balance [for example, through athletics and gymnastics]
perform dances using a range of movement patterns
take part in outdoor and adventurous activity challenges both individually and within a team
compare their performances with previous ones and demonstrate improvement to achieve their personal best.
Swimming & Water Safety
All schools must provide swimming instruction either in KS1 or KS2.
swim competently, confidently and proficiently over a distance of at least 25 metres
use a range of strokes effectively [for example, front crawl, backstroke and breaststroke]
perform safe self-rescue in different water-based situations.
Design & Technology
use research and develop design criteria to inform the design of innovative, functional, appealing products that are fit for purpose, aimed at particular individuals or groups
generate, develop, model and communicate their ideas through discussion, annotated sketches, cross-sectional and exploded diagrams, prototypes, pattern pieces and computer-aided design
select from and use a wider range of tools and equipment to perform practical tasks [for example, cutting, shaping, joining and finishing], accurately
select from and use a wider range of materials and components, including construction materials, textiles and ingredients, according to their functional properties and aesthetic qualities
investigate and analyse a range of existing products evaluate their ideas and products against their own design criteria and consider the views of others to improve their work
understand how key events and individuals in design and technology have helped shape the world
apply their understanding of how to strengthen, stiffen and reinforce more complex structures
understand and use mechanical systems in their products [for example, gears, pulleys, cams, levers and linkages]
understand and use electrical systems in their products [for example, series circuits incorporating switches, bulbs, buzzers and motors]
apply their understanding of computing to program, monitor and control their products.
Cooking & Nutrition
understand and apply the principles of a healthy and varied diet
prepare and cook a variety of predominantly savoury dishes using a range of cooking techniques
understand seasonality, and know where and how a variety of ingredients are grown, reared, caught and processed.
Art & Design
to create sketch books to record their observations and use them to review and revisit ideas
to improve their mastery of art and design techniques, including drawing, painting and sculpture with a range of materials [for example, pencil, charcoal, paint, clay]
about great artists, architects and designers in history.
play and perform in solo and ensemble contexts, using their voices and playing musical instruments with increasing accuracy, fluency, control and expression
improvise and compose music for a range of purposes using the inter-related dimensions of music
listen with attention to detail and recall sounds with increasing aural memory
use and understand staff and other musical notations
appreciate and understand a wide range of high-quality live and recorded music drawn from different traditions and from great composers and musicians
develop an understanding of the history of music.
listen attentively to spoken language and show understanding by joining in and responding
explore the patterns and sounds of language through songs and rhymes and link the spelling, sound and meaning of words
engage in conversations; ask and answer questions; express opinions and respond to those of others; seek clarification and help*
speak in sentences, using familiar vocabulary, phrases and basic language structures
develop accurate pronunciation and intonation so that others understand when they are reading aloud or using familiar words and phrases*
present ideas and information orally to a range of audiences*
read carefully and show understanding of words, phrases and simple writing
appreciate stories, songs, poems and rhymes in the language
broaden their vocabulary and develop their ability to understand new words that are introduced into familiar written material, including through using a dictionary
write phrases from memory, and adapt these to create new sentences, to express ideas clearly
describe people, places, things and actions orally* and in writing
understand basic grammar appropriate to the language being studied, including (where relevant): feminine, masculine and neuter forms and the conjugation of high-frequency verbs; key features and patterns of the language; how to apply these, for instance, to build sentences; and how these differ from or are similar to English.
The starred (*) content will not be applicable to ancient languages.