New National Curriculum 2014: Year 4


Spoken Language (Years 1 to 6)

listen and respond appropriately to adults and their peers

ask relevant questions to extend their understanding and knowledge

use relevant strategies to build their vocabulary

articulate and justify answers, arguments and opinions

give well-structured descriptions, explanations and narratives for different purposes, including for expressing feelings

maintain attention and participate actively in collaborative conversations, staying on topic and initiating and responding to comments

use spoken language to develop understanding through speculating, hypothesising, imagining and exploring ideas

speak audibly and fluently with an increasing command of Standard English

participate in discussions, presentations, performances, role play, improvisations and debates

gain, maintain and monitor the interest of the listener(s)

consider and evaluate different viewpoints, attending to and building on the contributions of others

select and use appropriate registers for effective communication.

Reading: Word Reading

apply their growing knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes (etymology and morphology) as listed in English Appendix 1, both to read aloud and to understand the meaning of new words they meet

read further exception words, noting the unusual correspondences between spelling and sound, and where these occur in the word.

Reading: Comprehension

Develop positive attitudes to reading and understanding of what they read by:

listening to and discussing a wide range of fiction, poetry, plays, non-fiction and reference books or textbooks

reading books that are structured in different ways and reading for a range of purposes

using dictionaries to check the meaning of words that they have read

increasing their familiarity with a wide range of books, including fairy stories, myths and legends, and retelling some of these orally

identifying themes and conventions in a wide range of books

preparing poems and play scripts to read aloud and to perform, showing understanding through intonation, tone, volume and action

discussing words and phrases that capture the reader’s interest and imagination

recognising some different forms of poetry [for example, free verse, narrative poetry]

Understand what they read, in books they can read independently, by:

checking that the text makes sense to them, discussing their understanding and explaining the meaning of words in context

asking questions to improve their understanding of a text

drawing inferences such as inferring characters’ feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions, and justifying inferences with evidence

predicting what might happen from details stated and implied

identifying main ideas drawn from more than one paragraph and summarising these

identifying how language, structure, and presentation contribute to meaning

retrieve and record information from non-fiction

participate in discussion about both books that are read to them and those they can read for themselves, taking turns and listening to what others say.

Writing: Transcription

use further prefixes and suffixes and understand how to add them (English Appendix 1)

spell further homophones

spell words that are often miss-pelt (English Appendix 1)

place the possessive apostrophe accurately in words with regular plurals [for example, girls’, boys’] and in words with irregular plurals [for example, children’s]

use the first two or three letters of a word to check its spelling in a dictionary

write from memory simple sentences, dictated by the teacher, that include words and punctuation taught so far.

Writing: Handwriting

use the diagonal and horizontal strokes that are needed to join letters and understand which letters, when adjacent to one another, are best left unjoined

increase the legibility, consistency and quality of their handwriting [for example, by ensuring that the down-strokes of letters are parallel and equidistant; that lines of writing are spaced sufficiently so that the ascenders and descenders of letters do not touch].

Writing: Composition

Plan their writing by:

discussing writing similar to that which they are planning to write in order to understand and learn from its structure, vocabulary and grammar

discussing and recording ideas

Draft & write by:

composing and rehearsing sentences orally (including dialogue), progressively building a varied and rich vocabulary and an increasing range of sentence structures (English Appendix 2)

organising paragraphs around a theme

in narratives, creating settings, characters and plot

in non-narrative material, using simple organisational devices [for example, headings and sub-headings]

Evaluate & edit by:

assessing the effectiveness of their own and others’ writing and suggesting improvements

proposing changes to grammar and vocabulary to improve consistency, including the accurate use of pronouns in sentences

proof-read for spelling and punctuation errors

read aloud their own writing, to a group or the whole class, using appropriate intonation and controlling the tone and volume so that the meaning is clear.

Writing: Vocabulary, Grammar & Punctuation

Develop their understanding of the concepts set out in English Appendix 2 by:

extending the range of sentences with more than one clause by using a wider range of conjunctions, including when, if, because, although

using the present perfect form of verbs in contrast to the past tense

choosing nouns or pronouns appropriately for clarity and cohesion and to avoid repetition

using conjunctions, adverbs and prepositions to express time and cause

using fronted adverbials

learning the grammar for years 3 and 4 in English Appendix 2

Indicate grammatical and other features by:

using commas after fronted adverbials

indicating possession by using the possessive apostrophe with plural nouns

using and punctuating direct speech

use and understand the grammatical terminology in English Appendix 2 accurately and appropriately when discussing their writing and reading.


Number: Number & Place Value

count in multiples of 6, 7, 9, 25 and 1000

find 1000 more or less than a given number

count backwards through zero to include negative numbers

recognise the place value of each digit in a four-digit number (thousands, hundreds, tens, and ones)

order and compare numbers beyond 1000

identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations

round any number to the nearest 10, 100 or 1000

solve number and practical problems that involve all of the above and with increasingly large positive numbers

read Roman numerals to 100 (I to C) and know that over time, the numeral system changed to include the concept of zero and place value.

Number: Addition & Subtraction

add and subtract numbers with up to 4 digits using the formal written methods of columnar addition and subtraction where appropriate

estimate and use inverse operations to check answers to a calculation

solve addition and subtraction two-step problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why.

Number: Multiplication & Division

recall multiplication and division facts for multiplication tables up to 12 Χ 12

use place value, known and derived facts to multiply and divide mentally, including: multiplying by 0 and 1; dividing by 1; multiplying together three numbers

recognise and use factor pairs and commutativity in mental calculations

multiply two-digit and three-digit numbers by a one-digit number using formal written layout

solve problems involving multiplying and adding, including using the distributive law to multiply two digit numbers by one digit, integer scaling problems and harder correspondence problems such as n objects are connected to m objects.

Number: Fractions

recognise and show, using diagrams, families of common equivalent fractions

count up and down in hundredths; recognise that hundredths arise when dividing an object by one hundred and dividing tenths by ten.

solve problems involving increasingly harder fractions to calculate quantities, and fractions to divide quantities, including non-unit fractions where the answer is a whole number

add and subtract fractions with the same denominator

recognise and write decimal equivalents of any number of tenths or hundredths

recognise and write decimal equivalents to 1/4, 1/2, 3/4

find the effect of dividing a one- or two-digit number by 10 and 100, identifying the value of the digits in the answer as ones, tenths and hundredths

round decimals with one decimal place to the nearest whole number

compare numbers with the same number of decimal places up to two decimal places

solve simple measure and money problems involving fractions and decimals to two decimal places.


convert between different units of measure [for example, kilometre to metre; hour to minute]

measure and calculate the perimeter of a rectilinear figure (including squares) in centimetres and metres

find the area of rectilinear shapes by counting squares

estimate, compare and calculate different measures, including money in pounds and pence.

Geometry: Properties of Shapes

compare and classify geometric shapes, including quadrilaterals and triangles, based on their properties and sizes

identify acute and obtuse angles and compare and order angles up to two right angles by size

identify lines of symmetry in 2-D shapes presented in different orientations

complete a simple symmetric figure with respect to a specific line of symmetry.

Geometry : Position & Direction

describe positions on a 2-D grid as coordinates in the first quadrant

describe movements between positions as translations of a given unit to the left/right and up/down

plot specified points and draw sides to complete a given polygon.


interpret and present discrete and continuous data using appropriate graphical methods, including bar charts and time graphs.

solve comparison, sum and difference problems using information presented in bar charts, pictograms, tables and other graphs.



Working Scientifically (Lower Key Stage 2)

asking relevant questions and using different types of scientific enquiries to answer them

setting up simple practical enquiries, comparative and fair tests

making systematic and careful observations and, where appropriate, taking accurate measurements using standard units, using a range of equipment, including thermometers and data loggers

gathering, recording, classifying and presenting data in a variety of ways to help in answering questions

recording findings using simple scientific language, drawings, labelled diagrams, keys, bar charts, and tables

reporting on findings from enquiries, including oral and written explanations, displays or presentations of results and conclusions

using results to draw simple conclusions, make predictions for new values, suggest improvements and raise further questions

identifying differences, similarities or changes related to simple scientific ideas and processes

using straightforward scientific evidence to answer questions or to support their findings.

Living Things & Their Habitats

recognise that living things can be grouped in a variety of ways

explore and use classification keys to help group, identify and name a variety of living things in their local and wider environment

recognise that environments can change and that this can sometimes pose dangers to living things.


Animals (including humans)

describe the simple functions of the basic parts of the digestive system in humans

identify the different types of teeth in humans and their simple functions

construct and interpret a variety of food chains, identifying producers, predators and prey.

States of Matter

compare and group materials together, according to whether they are solids, liquids or gases

observe that some materials change state when they are heated or cooled, and measure or research the temperature at which this happens in degrees Celsius (°C)

identify the part played by evaporation and condensation in the water cycle and associate the rate of evaporation with temperature.


identify how sounds are made, associating some of them with something vibrating

recognise that vibrations from sounds travel through a medium to the ear

find patterns between the pitch of a sound and features of the object that produced it

find patterns between the volume of a sound and the strength of the vibrations that produced it

recognise that sounds get fainter as the distance from the sound source increases.


identify common appliances that run on electricity

construct a simple series electrical circuit, identifying and naming its basic parts, including cells, wires, bulbs, switches and buzzers

identify whether or not a lamp will light in a simple series circuit, based on whether or not the lamp is part of a complete loop with a battery

recognise that a switch opens and closes a circuit and associate this with whether or not a lamp lights in a simple series circuit

recognise some common conductors and insulators, and associate metals with being good conductors.


Locational Knowledge

locate the world’s countries, using maps to focus on Europe (including the location of Russia) and North and South America, concentrating on their environmental regions, key physical and human characteristics, countries, and major cities

name and locate counties and cities of the United Kingdom, geographical regions and their identifying human and physical characteristics, key topographical features (including hills, mountains, coasts and rivers), and land-use patterns; and understand how some of these aspects have changed over time

identify the position and significance of latitude, longitude, Equator, Northern Hemisphere, Southern Hemisphere, the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, Arctic and Antarctic Circle, the Prime/Greenwich Meridian and time zones (including day and night)

Place Knowledge

understand geographical similarities and differences through the study of human and physical geography of a region of the United Kingdom, a region in a European country, and a region within North or South America

Human & Physical Geography

Describe and understand key aspects of:

physical geography, including: climate zones, biomes and vegetation belts, rivers, mountains, volcanoes and earthquakes, and the water cycle

human geography, including: types of settlement and land use, economic activity including trade links, and the distribution of natural resources including energy, food, minerals and water

Geographical Skills & Fieldwork

use maps, atlases, globes and digital/computer mapping to locate countries and describe features studied

use the eight points of a compass, four and six-figure grid references, symbols and key (including the use of Ordnance Survey maps) to build their knowledge of the United Kingdom and the wider world

use fieldwork to observe, measure, record and present the human and physical features in the local area using a range of methods, including sketch maps, plans and graphs, and digital technologies.


Pupils should continue to develop a chronologically secure knowledge and understanding of British, local and world history, establishing clear narratives within and across the periods they study. They should note connections, contrasts and trends over time and develop the appropriate use of historical terms. They should regularly address and sometimes devise historically valid questions about change, cause, similarity and difference, and significance. They should construct informed responses that involve thoughtful selection and organisation of relevant historical information. They should understand how our knowledge of the past is constructed from a range of sources.


changes in Britain from the Stone Age to the Iron Age

the Roman Empire and its impact on Britain

Britain’s settlement by Anglo-Saxons and Scots

the Viking and Anglo-Saxon struggle for the Kingdom of England to the time of Edward the Confessor

a local history study

a study of an aspect or theme in British history that extends pupils’ chronological knowledge beyond 1066

the achievements of the earliest civilizations – an overview of where and when the first civilizations appeared and a depth study of one of the following: Ancient Sumer; The Indus Valley; Ancient Egypt; The Shang Dynasty of Ancient China

Ancient Greece – a study of Greek life and achievements and their influence on the western world

a non-European society that provides contrasts with British history – one study chosen from: early Islamic civilization, including a study of Baghdad c. AD 900; Mayan civilization c. AD 900; Benin (West Africa) c. AD 900-1300.


design, write and debug programs that accomplish specific goals, including controlling or simulating physical systems; solve problems by decomposing them into smaller parts

use sequence, selection, and repetition in programs; work with variables and various forms of input and output

use logical reasoning to explain how some simple algorithms work and to detect and correct errors in algorithms and programs

understand computer networks including the internet; how they can provide multiple services, such as the world wide web; and the opportunities they offer for communication and collaboration

use search technologies effectively, appreciate how results are selected and ranked, and be discerning in evaluating digital content

select, use and combine a variety of software (including internet services) on a range of digital devices to design and create a range of programs, systems and content that accomplish given goals, including collecting, analysing, evaluating and presenting data and information

use technology safely, respectfully and responsibly; recognise acceptable/unacceptable behaviour; identify a range of ways to report concerns about content and contact.

Physical Education

use running, jumping, throwing and catching in isolation and in combination

play competitive games, modified where appropriate [for example, badminton, basketball, cricket, football, hockey, netball, rounders and tennis], and apply basic principles suitable for attacking and defending

develop flexibility, strength, technique, control and balance [for example, through athletics and gymnastics]

perform dances using a range of movement patterns

take part in outdoor and adventurous activity challenges both individually and within a team

compare their performances with previous ones and demonstrate improvement to achieve their personal best.

Swimming & Water Safety

All schools must provide swimming instruction either in KS1 or KS2.

swim competently, confidently and proficiently over a distance of at least 25 metres

use a range of strokes effectively [for example, front crawl, backstroke and breaststroke]

perform safe self-rescue in different water-based situations.

Design & Technology


use research and develop design criteria to inform the design of innovative, functional, appealing products that are fit for purpose, aimed at particular individuals or groups

generate, develop, model and communicate their ideas through discussion, annotated sketches, cross-sectional and exploded diagrams, prototypes, pattern pieces and computer-aided design


select from and use a wider range of tools and equipment to perform practical tasks [for example, cutting, shaping, joining and finishing], accurately

select from and use a wider range of materials and components, including construction materials, textiles and ingredients, according to their functional properties and aesthetic qualities


investigate and analyse a range of existing products evaluate their ideas and products against their own design criteria and consider the views of others to improve their work

understand how key events and individuals in design and technology have helped shape the world

Technical Knowledge

apply their understanding of how to strengthen, stiffen and reinforce more complex structures

understand and use mechanical systems in their products [for example, gears, pulleys, cams, levers and linkages]

understand and use electrical systems in their products [for example, series circuits incorporating switches, bulbs, buzzers and motors]

apply their understanding of computing to program, monitor and control their products.

Cooking & Nutrition

understand and apply the principles of a healthy and varied diet

prepare and cook a variety of predominantly savoury dishes using a range of cooking techniques

understand seasonality, and know where and how a variety of ingredients are grown, reared, caught and processed.

Art & Design

to create sketch books to record their observations and use them to review and revisit ideas

to improve their mastery of art and design techniques, including drawing, painting and sculpture with a range of materials [for example, pencil, charcoal, paint, clay]

about great artists, architects and designers in history.


play and perform in solo and ensemble contexts, using their voices and playing musical instruments with increasing accuracy, fluency, control and expression

improvise and compose music for a range of purposes using the inter-related dimensions of music

listen with attention to detail and recall sounds with increasing aural memory

use and understand staff and other musical notations

appreciate and understand a wide range of high-quality live and recorded music drawn from different traditions and from great composers and musicians

develop an understanding of the history of music.


listen attentively to spoken language and show understanding by joining in and responding

explore the patterns and sounds of language through songs and rhymes and link the spelling, sound and meaning of words

engage in conversations; ask and answer questions; express opinions and respond to those of others; seek clarification and help*

speak in sentences, using familiar vocabulary, phrases and basic language structures

develop accurate pronunciation and intonation so that others understand when they are reading aloud or using familiar words and phrases*

present ideas and information orally to a range of audiences*

read carefully and show understanding of words, phrases and simple writing

appreciate stories, songs, poems and rhymes in the language

broaden their vocabulary and develop their ability to understand new words that are introduced into familiar written material, including through using a dictionary

write phrases from memory, and adapt these to create new sentences, to express ideas clearly

describe people, places, things and actions orally* and in writing

understand basic grammar appropriate to the language being studied, including (where relevant): feminine, masculine and neuter forms and the conjugation of high-frequency verbs; key features and patterns of the language; how to apply these, for instance, to build sentences; and how these differ from or are similar to English.

The starred (*) content  will not be applicable to ancient languages.